Lemonade Tycoon New York Edition 2 serial key or number

Lemonade Tycoon New York Edition 2 serial key or number

Lemonade Tycoon New York Edition 2 serial key or number

Lemonade Tycoon New York Edition 2 serial key or number

The Lean Lemonade Tycoon 2

Simulation & Gaming

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A Simulation of Lean Manufacturing: TheLeanLemonadeTycoon 2

Lisa B. Ncube

Simulation Gaming 2010 41: 568 originally published online 27 April 2009

DOI: 10.1177/1046878109334336

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A Simulation of Lean

Manufacturing: TheLean

LemonadeTycoon 2

Lisa B. Ncube 1

Simulation & Gaming

41(4) 568 –586

© 2010 SAGE Publications

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DOI: 10.1177/1046878109334336

http://sg.sagepub.com

Abstract

This article discusses the functions and effectiveness of games and simulations in

the learning processes, in particular as an experiential learning methodology. The

application of the game LemonadeTycoon in the development of lean manufacturing

concepts is described. This article addresses the use of the game to teach the

principles of lean enterprise, including zero waiting time, zero inventory, scheduling,

internal customer pull instead of push system, batch to flow, cut batch sizes, line

balancing, and cut actual process times. Other outcomes of learning such as promoting

communication and interaction, facilitating cooperative learning, encouraging peer

learning and fostering teamwork are also discussed. Games and simulations are

relevant in all of the four learning phases of experiential learning and have a very

positive impact on the learning and future application of lean manufacturing principles.

Games are especially relevant in the generalization and application phases by helping

shift learner’s personal paradigms.

Keywords

batch to flow, cut batch sizes, experiential learning, games, internal customer pull

instead of push system, lean manufacturing, LemonadeTycoon, line balancing, phases

of experiential learning, principles of lean enterprise, scheduling, simulation, zero

inventory, zero waiting time

Games and simulations in the academic environment seem to evoke mixed reactions.

On one hand, many are concerned about the effectiveness of the games and simulations

in developing learning concepts (Ruben, 1999). On the other hand, it seems that

some games or simulations, such as the popular SimCity series, have been found to be

quite instructive but not able to sustain the interest of learners (Adams, 1998).

Interest in simulations and computer games by educators has been on the increase

in recent years, and there may be several reasons for this academic interest. First, there

1 Purdue University, Indiana, USA

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Ncube 569

has been an increasing shift from didactic teacher-centered lecture-based instruction

to more learner-centered modes of instruction that emphasize active learner roles

(Garris, Ahlers, & Driskell, 2002). These new interactive technologies have provided

opportunities to create learning environments that actively involve students in concept

development, collaborative and cooperative learning, skill development, and problem

solving. Secondly, games and simulations have been shown to be effective tools for

enhancing the learning and understanding of complex concepts (Cordova & Lepper,

1996). Lastly, the vast majority of students entering college and the workforce for the

first time belong to Generation Y or the Net Generation, also called the dot.com generation.

For this aptly named generation, games and simulations provide an enormously

compelling and rewarding experience. The challenge for educators is to exploit the

motivational factors of games and simulations while facilitating learning and accomplishing

instructional objectives (Garris et al., 2002).

Defining Games and Simulations

There is no consensus for the definitions of games and simulations. Simulations have

been defined by some as representations of some real-world phenomenon or imitations

of a system, process, or environment that can also take on some aspects of reality for

players or participants (Crookall & Saunders, 1989; Forsen-Nyberg & Haramaki, 1998).

Key features of simulations include real-world representations systems, rules and strategies

that allow simulation activity to develop, and a low-risk or risk-free learning

environment that protects participants from the consequences of mistakes (Connolly &

Stansfield, 2007). In contrast, games do not represent any real-world phenomenon or

system; the game is the end in itself. Like simulations, games also contain rules and

strategies, and while the risks taken in a game may result in negative consequences, they

are still contained within the game world (Crookall, Oxford, & Saunders, 1987).

A game is an activity that is voluntary and enjoyable, separate from the real world,

uncertain, unproductive in that the activity does not produce any goods of external

value, and governed by rules (Garris et al., 2002). While generally games and simulations

are considered similar in many respects, it is important to remember that the key

distinction is that simulations propose to represent reality, whereas games do not. This

is an important distinction to take into account when considering the desired learning

outcomes for participants.

Effectiveness of Games and Simulations

Studies have shown that incorporating games into instruction leads to improved

learning (Ricci, Salas, & Cannon-Bowers, 1996). For example, including a variable

payoff schedule into a simulation game was found to lead to increased risk

taking among participants, which resulted in greater persistence on the task and

improved performance. Instruction that included games enhanced participant

motivation, leading to greater attention to training content and greater retention

(Ricci et al., 1996).

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570 Simulation & Gaming 41(4)

Simulations enrich the learning experience by providing a multimedia, interactive,

and collaborative environment. Simulations enhance the understanding of strategic

management and marketing concepts; they effectively promote cognitive learning and

strengthen certain kinds of learning but not all. DeKanter (2006) suggests that when

matched with the appropriate content, multiplayer games offer a three-dimensional

learning construct. In this learning environment, there are teacher-participant and

participant-participant interactions with the entire classroom discussing the causes

and effects of a game scenario. The characteristics of instructional games and simulations

are closely aligned to the theoretical principals of constructivism:

1. Relate learning activities to a larger task or problem.

2. Support the participants in developing ownership of problem or task.

3. Tasks should be authentic.

4. Tasks and the learning environment should reflect the complexity of the real

world.

5. Provide the participants with opportunities to own the solution development

process.

6. Learning environment should support and challenge the learner’s thinking.

7. Allow for testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts.

8. Provide opportunity for reflection on both the content learned and the learning

process (DeKanter, 2006).

Figure 1 shows a constructivist learning model (DeKanter, 2006) illustrating the

interconnectedness of these elements.

Simulations, Games, and Experiential Learning

Instructional games and simulations by virtue are experiential learning activities. The

experiential learning cycle developed by Kolb (1984) provides a framework for contextualizing

instructional games and simulations. There are four steps inside the cycle and

three steps that involve getting into and out of the cycle. To begin every session, the

instructor must set the climate and focus participant attention. Without this, participants

may not understand the purpose of the game or simulation. Depending on the design,

deductive or inductive, the instructor may introduce the goals at the beginning or end of

the session or both. However, it is important to inform participants of the goals and objectives

of the game or simulation. Finally, the instructor must bring closure to the session by

debriefing, tying concepts together, and advising participants of subsequent activities.

The experiential learning cycle, shown in Figure 2, has four parts inside the cycle

outlined below (Kolb, 1984):

experience: the activity phase

processing: sharing reactions and observations; discussing patterns and dynamics

generalizing: developing real-world principles

applying: planning effective use of learning

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Figure 1. Constructivist Learning Model (Dekanter, 2006)

Climate Setting

Closure

Goals

Goals

Application

Planning more

effective

Post training

behavior

Experience

Activity, Doing

ELC

Description of LemonadeTycoon 2: The Game

Process

Sharing,

comparing

processing,

reflecting

NOW WHAT WHAT

Figure 2. Experiential Learning Cycle (Kolb 1984)

Generalization

Drawing conclusions,

Identifying general

principles

SO WHAT

The objective of LemonadeTycoon 2 was to provide students with a significant

learning experience involving concrete industrial and business situations, allowing

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572 Simulation & Gaming 41(4)

them to bridge the gap between content and the academic environment and the real

world. The team approach was used, and team members were allowed a specific

period to develop a strategy for the business venture involving the sale of a manufactured

product—lemonade.

The appeal of LemonadeTycoon 2, New York edition lies in its simplicity, requiring

the players to make a host of decisions and allowing them to easily explore the

impact of their choices. LemonadeTycoon 2 has three game play modes: Time Challenge,

Money Challenge, and Career. In the Time Challenge mode, players try to

make as much money as they can within a time limit that they decide on at the start of

the game. In Money Challenge, the main objective is to play until the money limit set

at the start is reached. The Time Challenge and Money Challenge modes feature similar

game plays, because players have to meet an objective. The third mode is the Career,

which is an open-ended game focused on building a thriving and sustainable business.

The Career mode of the game allows players to compete with the game itself, without

worrying about whether or not they can finish before time runs out. The game spans

different districts of New York (Tycoon Games Review.com).

Starting LemonadeTycoon 2 players have an option of following the walkthrough

or playing by themselves. Players start with a free lemonade stand in the Bronx and

$500 (see Figure 3). Then, they choose a recipe for lemonade, purchase supplies, and

set the price per cup of the lemonade.

The day starts with the opening of the lemonade stand and customers coming to

buy lemonade. When business picks up, players can hire employees and invest in

calculators, advertising, and other upgrades (Adams, 1998). Players have to make

sure they have enough stock and that their recipe takes into account the weather

report for the next day. The weather plays a big role in the success, and learning what

customers like is a part of that success (Tycoon Games Review.com). Players control

their marketing budget, stock levels, recipes, and prices. They can also upgrade their

stand with items that speed transactions, draw more patrons, or keep people in line

longer. The game can be speeded up by fast-forwarding or skipping straight to the

evening to check receipts, track the company’s profits and losses, order stock for

the following day, and more.

Players start small, focusing on the basics. LemonadeTycoon 2 is a business simulation

for uncertain times (Cohen, 2005). Beginning with a small stand on a street

corner, players buy supplies, mix up a batch of lemonade, and sell lemonade. If their

price is too high, the line is too long, or the recipe is unappealing, customers disappear

and players are stuck with melted ice and spoiled lemons (Spence, 2003). The animations

of customers ambling by and issuing thought balloons are quite fascinating.

LemonadeTycoon 2 as simulation can be very interesting and educational. Not only

must players set the right price and buy appropriate supplies, they have to contend with

the weather, market awareness, demographics, and advertising issues. TheLemonade

Stock Exchange even allows players to share scores with other LemonadeTycoon

2 players online (Spence, 2003).

Although the program is primarily designed for pleasure and contains a number of

gross simplifications of manufacturing and venture capitalism, it provides a teaching

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Ncube 573

Figure 3. Screenshot of Times Square Stand

tool with special strengths when placed in the context of other modes of business and

industrial manufacturing instruction (Marc, 1995). These strengths include the ability

to represent attractively a complex system, as well as great flexibility in scale of representation,

coordinated representation of pattern and process, a pedagogical environment

which is conducive to critique of familiar industrial and business patterns and

processes, and a hint of the complexity of issues facing business people and manufacturers

(Marc, 1995).

As a management or business game, LemonadeTycoon 2 qualifies very well as a

simulation. Not only does it reflect reality and promote social communication, but it

also allows for the evaluation of reality with self-evaluation and reflection (Kryukov

& Kryukova, 1986; Wall & Ahmed, 2008). Simulation is a flexible tool that allows the

visualization and quantification of technological as well as operational changes in

processes for the decision maker (Washbush & Gosen, 2001). LemonadeTycoon

while simple to play, still puts players into complex realistic situations. It also has the

added advantage of being flexible and adaptable and can be applied to a variety of

other management and business contexts, including marketing, decision making, and

forecasting among others.

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574 Simulation & Gaming 41(4)

Facilitating the Learning of Lean Manufacturing Principles

Teams played the LemonadeTycoon game as an approach to learning lean manufacturing.

The goals of this exercise were to apply lean manufacturing concepts and

throughput time using the pull system to explain and illustrate the concepts of push and

pull (kanban), bottleneck, cycle time, and idle time, The game did not effectively illustrate

other lean principles, including line balance and worker behavior in an operational

setting. Lean is more than just cutting costs in the factory. One crucial insight was that

most costs were assigned when a product was designed (Yazici, 2006). Good organizational

management principles required the development and review checklists to review

product designs. Key lean manufacturing principles learned included the following:

• Pull processing: Products are pulled from the consumer end (demand), not

pushed from the production end (supply).

• Perfect first-time quality: This refers to a quest for zero defects, revealing

and solving problems at the source.

• Waste minimization: Eliminate all activities that do not add value and safety

nets, and maximize the use of scarce resources (capital, people, and land).

• Continuous improvement: Reduce costs, improve quality, and increase productivity

and information sharing.

• Flexibility: Produce different mixes or greater diversity of products quickly,

without sacrificing efficiency at lower volumes of production.

• Build and maintain a long-term relationship with suppliers through collaborative

risk sharing, cost sharing, and information sharing arrangements

(Carlino & Flinchbaugh, 2005; Yazici, 2006).

Lean production is aimed at the elimination of waste in every area of production,

including customer relations, product design, supplier networks, and factory management.

Its goal is to incorporate less human effort, less inventory, less time to develop products,

and less space to become highly responsive to customer demand while producing top

quality products in the most efficient and economical manner possible.

Lean manufacturing is a management philosophy focusing on reduction of seven

resources that are commonly wasted, to improve customer value (Carlino & Flinchbaugh,

2005; Ohno, 1988). Technically, there are now nine “deadly wastes”:

• Defects: Defective products and quality defects are unacceptable to the customer.

The effort involved in inspecting for and fixing defects results in

wasted time, energy, and resources.

• Overproduction: Making more than what is needed or making it earlier than

needed results in excess products; these are wasted when they are not sold to

the customer.

• Transportation/Conveyance: Moving products farther than is minimally

required results in unnecessary movement, which is costly as it has no added

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Ncube 575

value. Every time a product is moved, there is chance that it will be damaged,

lost, or delayed.

• Waiting: This refers to products waiting on the next production step or people

waiting for work to do. Time spent waiting for resources to arrive, queuing

products to empty, and delayed delivery to the customer is waste.

• Inventory: Raw materials, work-in-progress, or finished goods that are not

being actively processed to add value are waste as they represent a capital

outlay that has not yet produced an income either by the producer or for

the consumer. Having more inventory than is minimally required results in

waste.

• Motion: People moving or walking more than minimally required is a waste.

Movement by the worker or equipment has significance to damage, wear,

and safety.

• Overprocessing: The use of more costly resources than necessary or adding

unnecessary features not needed by the customer represents the seventh form

of waste. Overprocessing relates to standalone processes that are not linked

to upstream or downstream processes.

• Safety: Unsafe work areas create lost work hours and expenses, which results

in waste.

• Information: The age of electronic information and enterprise resource planning

systems requires current/correct master data details (Carlino & Flinchbaugh,

2005; Mejabi, 2003; Ohno, 1988).

By eliminating waste (muda), quality is improved, and production time and costs

are reduced. To solve the problem of waste, lean manufacturing has several mechanisms

at its disposal. These include a continuous improvement process (kaizen), pull

production (by means of kanban), and mistake proofing (poka-yoke; Carlino &

Flinchbaugh, 2005).

Operation of LemonadeTycoon

Participants were grouped into teams. Each team focused on improving business outcomes

by applying lean manufacturing principles and eliminating waste. They focused

on the following core concepts in their bid to improve their businesses:

1. Creativity comes before capital, which taps into the experience, innovation,

and knowledge of the people working in the process.

2. An improvement not perfectly done today is better than the perfect solution

done late. There is always a need for further continuous improvement.

3. Inventory is not an asset but a cost or waste.

4. There is power in teamwork and consensus through brainstorming (Alukal,

2006).

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576 Simulation & Gaming 41(4)

Figure 4. Feedback Report

In the interest of time, players chose the Time or Money Challenge. Teams started

the day with the lemonade recipe set and supplies in place. During the course of the

day, teams adjusted their resources as needed by hiring employees and investing in

calculators, advertising, and purchasing other upgrades. The game has a good feedback

system, which allows players to see how well they did and how good their lemonade

is. The feedback system is based on whether the customers like the lemonade or not

(Figure 4).

At the end of the day, teams used the feedback system to see how well they did and

how good their lemonade was. Depending on how well they did, teams had to decide

whether or not there was a problem. If they had a problem, they simulated the problemsolving

DMAIC process. If the feedback was positive, teams could then implement

continuous improvement processes. The game also provides a report that allows the

players to monitor progress in terms of revenues, costs, profits, and expenses (Figure 5).

LemonadeTycoon 2’s basic graphics offer a simple streetscape inhabited by small

figures. Its appeal lies in finding ways to make more money.

The main steps in the lean LemonadeTycoon 2 simulation involved developing a

value stream map of the underlying process. Ferguson (2007) describes value stream

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Ncube 577

Figure 5. Profit & Loss Report

mapping as a visual way of representing the flow of information and materials in the

production of products. In LemonadeTycoon 2, value stream mapping helped teams

relate information and product flow, and waste and helped them determine the relationship

between information and supplies. To effect process management, the six

sigma methodology, DMAIC (determine, measure, analyze, improve, and control),

was applied as a framework for the process management (Ferguson, 2007). Figure 6

displays the simulation framework for the process management.

The first step in the process, Define, involved identifying the improvement opportunities

(see options below). In the next phase, Measure, the teams developed a data

collection plan to baseline the current situation and ensure that accurate and valid data

required for analysis in the next phase are available. The reporting feature in the game

allowed the teams to have the necessary data readily available. The Analyze step

involved estimating and quantifying the current state of the process with the idea of

identifying and verifying the root cause of the wasted stock, which provides an idea of

the gaps to be filled (Miles, 2006; Mukherjee, 2008). The purpose of the Analyze

phase was to make sense of all the information and data collected in Measure, and to

use those data to confirm the source of waste and poor quality (George, Rowlands, &

Kastle, 2004). In the Analyze phase, teams developed theories of root causes, confirmed

the theories with data from the reporting feature in the game, and finally identified the

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578 Simulation & Gaming 41(4)

YES

Problem

solving?

Define

Measure

YES

START DAY

New Process:

New Recipe

Supplies

END OF DAY

WASTE?

LEAN

MANUFACTURING

Figure 6. Simulation Flowchart for LeanLemonadeTycoon 2 (Modified from Al-Aomar, 2007)

root causes of the problem (Miles, 2006). The identified causes formed the basis for

solutions in the Improve phase.

The purpose of the Improve phase was to make changes in the lemonade-making

process that eliminated defects, waste, and cost linked to the customer needs identified

NO

Continuous

improvement?

YES YES

Define

Lean Measures

Analyze Analyze

Improve

Redesign

Process?

Manufacture product: Lemonade

Sell product: Lemonade

NO

Control

Lean Techniques

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START DAY


Ncube 579

in the Define phase (Miles, 2006). In the Improve phase, teams identified a range of

possible solutions, developed criteria for selecting solutions, and implemented the

chosen solution the next day. Teams improved the lemonade by eliminating defects,

which included anything that was unacceptable to the customer (e.g., amount of ice,

number of lemons in recipe, time to service, etc.). At the end of each day, teams had

to choose the lean improvement options they used to improve production and reduce

waste (muda) for the next day.

The improvement options were as follows:

1. reduce setup times/rapid setup

2. push to pull (kanban)

3. team development

4. batch size reduction

5. reduce move times

6. modify order file

7. reduce processing/inspection times

8. reduce rework times

9. six sigma/total quality

10. manage work center capacities (theory of constraints)

Teams also identified the sources of waste (seven wastes) in their lemonade making

business:

• inventory

• defective product

• waiting time

• overproduction

• transportation

• motion

• overprocessing

As part of the simulation, teams determined which of the seven resources were

being wasted in the lemonade-making and selling process.

The purpose of Control was to make sure that any gains the team made lasted by

maintaining the new strategy. During the Control phase, teams controlled their marketing

budget, stock levels, recipes, and prices, and documented the new improved process

(see the appendix). Analyzing the process using the flowchart improved the process,

developing a future value stream map of the improved system and defining actions to

main the achieved improvement (Al-Aomar, 2007).

Evaluation of the LemonadeTycoon Simulation Game

Evidence for the effectiveness of the methodology was obtained through the use of a

variation of the minute paper assessment (Angelo & Cross, 1993). This assessment

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580 Simulation & Gaming 41(4)

requires very little time to administer in the classroom. However, it elicits important

feedback on how well teams reacted to the learning experience. Teams were asked to

respond to the following questions:

• What did you learn from the game?

• What did you like the most?

• What did you like the least?

• What, if anything, do you feel has not been very helpful?

• What, if any, problems did you encounter?

• What questions on lean were not answered by the game?

Most teams indicated that playing the game helped them understand lean principles

more effectively. However, they felt that they were not always able to apply all the improvement

options at once. When they applied several options at the same time, they were not

able to tell which option had the most impact on the outcome. Other options, such as

reduction of processing or inspection times, reduction of rework times, and reduction of

setup times were difficult to implement. Another limitation is that the production process

is overly simplified for some real-life situations. However, despite some of the shortcomings

of the game, teams felt that the game was an effective methodology. The main benefits

of using LemonadeTycoon to learn lean concepts included the following:

• Concept development: This enhanced the learning and understanding of

complex concepts of lean.

• Team building: Participants learned to work effectively in teams.

• Problem solving: The game allowed the development of problem-solving

skills.

• Experiential: Experiential learning was promoted, enhancing the learning

environment.

Conclusion

The many advantages of using simulation techniques when teaching have been noted

by a number of authors. The gaming method has advantages over case and lecture

methods because participants actually become involved in the decision-making

process; this approach also facilitates the introduction of integrated organizational

systems, and it is possible to illustrate other concepts, including the system’s life cycle

and integrated central databases. Benefits of games and simulations in an academic

learning environment include the following:

1. Games and simulations allow students to participate in learning activities that

are otherwise too costly, too dangerous, difficult, or impractical to implement

in the classroom (Berson, 1996).

2. They facilitate participant engagement in those activities that are difficult to

accomplish by other means (Thomas, Cahill, & Santilli, 1997).

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Ncube 581

3. Games and simulations tend to incorporate degrees of flexibility and complexity

to cater to different learning styles (Kirriemuir, 2002; Sedighian,

1994).

4. They broaden learners’ exposure to different people and perspectives

(Berson, 1996).

5. Games and simulations also encourage collaboration and support meaningful

postgame discussion (Kirriemuir, 2002).

6. Many games and simulations have instant feedback and a risk-free environment

that invites exploration and experimentation, stimulating curiosity, discovery,

learning, and perseverance (Kirriemuir, 2002).

7. Competitive simulation games encourage self-learning—players have more

incentive to learn because of the motivation to win.

Other significant learning benefits of computer simulation games are the use of

metacognition and mental models, improved strategic thinking and insight, better

psychomotor skills, and the development of analytical and spatial skills, iconic

skills, visual selective attention, computer skills and so on (Green & Bavelier, 2003;

Kirriemuir, 2002; Ko, 2002; Pillay, Brownlee, & Wilss, 1999).

Nevertheless, simulation presents challenges for the learner and instructor (Mitchel

& Savill-Smith, 2004). Some of the disadvantages of using instructional games and

simulations include the following:

1. Games and simulations require more of time to cover the same number of

concepts as compared with more traditional lecture methods.

2. Games and simulations do not necessarily develop all competencies, and at

times, the competencies learned are peripheral to the required skills.

3. While LemonadeTycoon is fairly inexpensive, most other games and simulations

can be expensive.

4. The simulation may not realistically portray the real world.

5. Games and simulations can quickly degenerate into horseplay resulting in

confusion and noise.

6. Some computer games and simulations have software shortcomings that may

cause failure and frustration.

7. Not all learners enjoy playing games.

8. The number of active participants is limited, with the rest of the team acting

as spectators.

However, despite these challenges for both instructors and learners, games and

simulations have real merit in the learning of dry content, inaccessible material, or

complex concepts. They put the learner in the role of decision maker and push players

through ever harder challenges—you learn through trial and error (Kirriemuir, 2002).

A good game and simulation will allow the participants to make mistakes and learn

from those mistakes in a realistic environment, without suffering the consequences of

those mistakes as they would in real life (Berson, 1996).

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582 Simulation & Gaming 41(4)

Appendix 1

Day

1

2

3

4

5

Sales/# of

cups sold Profit

Customer

responses

Beginning

Stock

Assumptions and Non-customer Variables

Improvement Options:

1 Reduce Set-up Times

2 Push to Pull

3 Batch Size Reduction

4 Reduce Move Times

5 Modify Order File

6 Reduce Processing/ Inspection Times

7 Reduce Re-Work Times

Improve Quality

Manage Work Center Capacities (TOC)

End

Stock

Wasted

Inventory

Appendix A: One period of play-by-play data

#eid: Per Time Event Team Description

1 1 2:00 FACEOFF N/A Away wins

2 1 1:54 SHOT Away Away shoots

3 1 1:48 SHOT Home Home shoots

4 1 1:35 SHOT Away Away shoots

5 1 1:26 SHOT Home Home shoots

6 1 1:21 FACEOFF N/A Away wins

7 1 1:10 SHOT Away Away shoots

8 1 1:04 SHOT Home Home shoots

9 1 1:03 KARMA Home Start: 29 Delta: -11 Final: 18

10 1 1:03 HITTARG Home Goalie

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Lean

Adjustments:

Quality

Improvement

(continued)


Ncube 583

Appendix A (continued)

11 1 0:51 SHOT Away Away shoots

12 1 0:49 INJURY Home Home team has sustained an injury

13 1 0:45 SHOT Home Home shoots

14 1 0:41 LINECHG Home Home is changing lines

15 1 0:35 SHOT Away Away shoots

16 1 0:33 LINECHG Home Home is changing lines

17 1 0:33 LINECHG Home Home is changing lines

18 1 0:32 LINECHG Home Home is changing lines

19 1 0:31 SHOT Away Away shoots

20 1 0:21 SHOT Home Home shoots

21 1 0:20 SHOT Home Home shoots

22 1 0:16 HITFREQ Home First hit in a row

23 1 0:16 KARMA Home Start: 9 Delta: -7 Final: 2

24 1 0:16 HITTARG Home Open player

25 1 0:15 FACEOFF N/A Away wins

26 1 0:07 SHOT Away Away shoots

Appendix B: Post-play questionnaire

Five possible responses for each question, ranging from Strongly Agree to Strongly

Disagree

Name: ____________________________________________ Age: ________

Gender: Male or Female (Circle one)

For each of the statements below, please indicate the extent of your agreement or

disagreement by placing a tick in the appropriate column.

Please answer all questions based on your experience of playing Heads Up Hockey.

1. Aggressive play (for example, speeding up to deliver a big hit) is important to

winning at Heads Up Hockey

2. Changing lines every 25 seconds or so is important to winning at Heads Up

Hockey

3. Removing injured players from the lineup is not important to winning at

Heads Up Hockey

4. Chippy play (for example, hitting a player that doesn’t have the puck) improves

my chances of winning at Heads Up Hockey

5. Getting used to the game controls is important to winning

6. The more I played Heads Up Hockey, the more often I removed injured players

from the lineup

Downloaded from

sag.sagepub.com by Claudia Ribeiro on October 14, 2010

(continued)


584 Simulation & Gaming 41(4)

Appendix B (continued)

7. The more tired a player was in Heads Up Hockey, the more likely he was to

get injured

8. The more I played Heads Up Hockey, the less aggressive I played

9. If an injured player is not removed from the lineup, the rest of the team would

start playing more poorly (for example, skate slower, shoot less hard)

10. I tried my absolute best to win at Heads Up Hockey.

References

Adams, P. C. (1998). Teaching and learning with SimCity 2000. Journal of Geography, 97(2),

47-55.

Al-Aomar, R. (2007, December). Prestigious three: Simulation, lean, and six sigma, ease business

process management. Industrial Engineer, 39-42.

Alarcón, L. F., & Ashley, D. B. (1999, July 26-28). Playing games: Evaluating the impact of

lean production strategies on project cost and schedule. Paper presented at the 7th annual

conference of the International Group for Lean Construction, Berkeley, CA.

Alukal, G. (2006). All about lean. Quality Progress, 39(2), 74-75.

Angelo, T.A. &Cross, K.P. (1993). A Handbook of Classroom Assessment Techniques for College

Teachers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Berson, M. (1996). Effectiveness of computer technology in social studies: A review of the

literature. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 28, 486-499.

Billington, P. J. (2004). A classroom exercise to illustrate lean manufacturing pull concepts.

Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 2, 71-76.

Carlino, A., & Flinchbaugh, J. (2005). The hitchhiker’s guide to lean. Dearborn, MI: Society of

Manufacturing Engineers.

Cohen, P. (2005). LemonadeTycoon 2. Macworld, 22(5), 45.

Connolly, T. M., & Stansfield, M. (2007). From e-learning to games-based e-learning: Using

interactive technologies in teaching an IS course. International Journal of Information Technology

and Management, 6(2-4), 188-208.

Cordova, D. I., & Lepper, M. R. (1996). The implementation of cooperative learning in an

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Jeffrey and Bryan Eisenberg are the co-founders of BuyerLegends. They are the co-authors of the Wall Street Journal, Business Week, USA Today and New York Times bestselling books "Call to Action" , "Waiting For Your Cat to Bark?" , "Always Be Testing" and "Buyer Legends".

They have been the keynote speakers for corporate events and conferences such as Google, Gultaggen, Shop.org, JP Morgan Chase Bank, Direct Marketing Association, DreamForce, E-consultancy, Emerce, and the Canadian Marketing Association. They are recognized internationally as pioneers in online marketing, improving conversion rates, persuasive content and persona marketing, and helping organizations improve their customer experiences.
Bryan was been recognized by eConsultancy members as one of the top 10 User Experience Gurus, by LinkedIn as a Retail Influencer and he is also an IBM Futurist, he was selected as one of the inaugural iMedia Top 25 Marketers, and a Marketing Edge Rising Star Award winner.

Roy H. Williams is the author of 9 books, including the New York Times and Wall Street Journal bestselling Wizard of Ads trilogy. He is also the Chancellor of Wizard Academy, a business school for America s 5.91 million businesses with fewer than 100 employees.

--This text refers to the hardcover edition.
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